Important data

From CSE Wiki

This page contains all the data required for GS Mains. This helps in substantiating arguments.

Socio-economic data

  • Sex ratio = 943 (933 in 2001 Census) [Note: Kerala = 1084 and Puducherry = 1037; Only these 2 states/UT have 1000+ sex ratio]
    • Rural = 949 (946 in 2001)
    • Urban = 929 (900 in 2001)
    • SC = 945
    • ST = 990
    • Child Sex Ratio (0-5 years of age) = 918 (927 in 2001) [Note: No state has CSR of grater than 1000. Max = 972 in Arunachal Pradesh]
    • Sex Ratio at Birth (0-1 years of age) = 899 (2011) (905 in 2001)
      • SRB = 931 (2018-19) (Health Management Information System (HMIS))
  • Literacy rate = 74% (~18% in 1951, 64% in 2001)
    • Male = 82%
    • Female = 65%
    • SC = 66%
    • ST = 59%
    • This means 20% (more than 30 crore) people are still illiterate.
  • Religion:
    • Hindu = 80%
    • Muslim = 14%
    • Christians = 2.3%
    • Sikhs = 1.7%
    • Others = 2%
  • IMR = 41/1000 (NFHS IV) (44 in 2011, 66 in 2001)
  • MMR = 122/100,000 (2017, Sample Registration System (SRS)) (167 in 2013)
  • Life expectancy: ~68.3 (M = 66.9; F = 69.9) (in 1951 it was just 32 years)
  • Poverty = 21.9% (Tendulkar report, 2011-12) [as per Rangarajan report it is ~29%] (Poverty at independence = 55%)
    • About 30% of multidimensionally poor children live in India. (Oxford Poverty and Human Development Initiative (OPHI))
    • More than 528 million (52 crore) Indians are (multidimensionally) poor, which are more people than all the poor people living in sub-Saharan Africa combined. (Oxford Poverty & Human Development Initiative)
    • India is the world’s second largest food producer, yet it is also home to the second highest population of under-nourished in the world.
    • Around 39% of BPL population belong to Scheduled Castes. (Min. of Social Justice)
  • Per capita income = 1,03,000 (pa) = 282 (per day) [It is growing at more than 9%.]
  • Average household income = 13000 per month (remember it as less than ₹15000 per month) [this is post tax income - that is available for consumption]
    • A Labour Bureau’s survey in 2016, found that over 87% of the households earned less than ₹20,000 a month (₹2.4 lakh a year).
  • Urbanisation: Of the 121 crore Indians, 83.3 crore (68.84%) live in rural areas while 37.7 (31.16%) crore stay in urban areas. (Census 2011)
Present 1951
Literacy 74% 18%
Female literacy 65% 9%
Poverty 22% 55%
Life expectancy 68 years 32 years
Sex ratio 943 946
IMR 41 145
MMR 122 2000

Demography

  • Fertility rate = 2.2 (NFHS -IV) (2.3 in Census 2011; 5.9 in 1960);
    • India's fertility rate has more than halved in the last 40 years.
    • We will achieve FR of 2.1 by 2020.
    • Urban areas = 1.8
    • Rural areas = 2.4
    • Women with 12 or more years of schooling = 1.7
    • Women with no schooling = 3.1
    • Fertility in 23 states/UT is below replacement level.
    • Highest fertility: Bihar (3.4) > Meghalaya (3) > UP and Nagaland (2.7)
  • Live births every year = 2.6 crores.
  • Death every year = 0.9 crores
  • Children (0-14 years) = 28% (nearly one-third)
  • Adolescents (10-19) = 21%
  • Youth (15 and 29) = 27.5% (nearly one third)
  • More than 65% of population is below the age of 35. (Demographic dividend)
  • Old age population = 8.6% (more than 10 crore). By 2050 it will reach 20% of total population.
  • It is expected that, in 2020, the average age of an Indian will be 29 years.
  • PwDs = 2.68 crore (2.21%)

Socio Economic and Caste Census 2011

  • There are 24.39 crore households in India, of which 17.91 (~73%) crore live in villages.
  • 36% of 88 crore people in rural India are non-literate.
  • 44.72 crore Indians are non-literate (More than one-third of population)
  • More than 1.8 lakh households are engaged in manual scavenging for a livelihood. Maharashtra has the largest number of manual scavenger households.
  • Landless ownership was 56% of the total rural population, with 70% of SCs and 50% of STs being landless owners.
  • Of all the rural households, 7.05 crore, or 39%, were termed as 'Excluded Households' which did not have an income of over ₹10,000 per month, or did not own either an automobile, fishing boat or kisan credit card.
  • Govt has now decided to use SECC data instead of poverty line method as SECC identifies who actually are the poor. Hence it is more targeted and precise.

Health

  • Budgetary allocation on health = 1.2% of GDP
  • Total spending on health (including private spending) = 4.1% of GDP.
  • Govt health expenditure is less than 30% of total health expenditure of India. In developed countries like UK the same is more than 80%.
  • Doctor Patient ratio = 1:1655 (~ 1: 1600) [Doctor to Patient ratio should be at least 1:1000]
  • India has 20.6 health workers per 10,000 people, which is less than the minimum threshold set by the WHO (44.5).
  • Life expectancy: ~68.3 (M = 66.9; F = 69.9) [in 1951 it was just 32%]
  • Only 65.3% of children under 5yr are fully immunised.
  • Nutrition:
    • Under nourished population - 14.8%
    • 58% of children under 5 years of age are anaemic. 53% of women aged 15-49 are anaemic.
    • India is home to more than one-third of the world’s stunted children.
    • 13% of men & 11% of women are underweight in India. (Avg = 12%)
    • World Bank’s “Nutrition at a Glance” research report states that India loses over $12 billion in GDP to vitamin and mineral deficiencies.
    • The NFHS-4 has shown that over the past decade, the proportion of underweight children fell by nearly 7% to 36%, while the proportion of stunted children (those with low height-for-age, a measure of chronic undernourishment) declined by nearly 10% to 38%. [Although discouraging, can be presented as encouraging]
      • Under weight children - 36%
      • Stunted children - 38%
    • According to a recent (June 2018) UN report, the number of hungry people in the world has risen for the first time in more than a decade.
  • Maternal & infant mortality
    • Women in India gain only about 7 kilograms during pregnancy, which is substantially less than the 12.5-18 kg gain that the WHO recommends. [ES 2015-16]
    • 42.2% of Indian women are underweight at the beginning of pregnancy. [ES 2015-16]
    • Every year around 44,000 women in India die due to pregnancy related complications and approximately 6.6 lakh infants die within the first 28 days of life.
    • Janani Suraksha Yojana: The Janani Suraksha Yojana has led to a sharp increase in institutional delivery (from 39% in 2005-06 to 79% in 2015-16) and near doubling of children breastfed within one hour of birth in the last 10 years.
    • Breastfeeding within an hour of birth could prevent 20% of newborn deaths.
    • Initial breastfeeding has been nearly doubled in last decade i.e. from 23.4% in NFHS-3 (2005-06) to 41.6 % in NFHS-4 (2015-16).
  • Obesity
    • 21% of women and 19% of men are overweight or obese in India. (NFHS-4) (Avg = 20%)
    • The number of obese people has almost doubled in the country in the last decade. (NFHS-4)
    • Obesity affects urban population more than its rural counterpart.(NFHS-4)
    • India has the second highest number of obese children in the world after China.
  • Health Insurance
    • Only less than 30% of households are covered by health insurance.
    • India's health insurance penetration rate (ratio of premium underwritten in a particular year to the GDP) is 3.4%, far below the global average of 6.2%.
    • At least 70% of total expenditure of a patient is out of pocket expenditure. (In China out of pocket expenditure is less than 35%.)
  • Sanitation
    • A World Bank study had estimated that costs due to poor sanitation facilities were to the tune of more than 6% of India’s gross domestic product in 2006.
    • Overall sanitation coverage has gone up from 40% (in 2014) to 69% (in 2017).
  • Mental health
    • 13% of Indians have poor mental health (NFHS IV)
    • India accounts for 15% of the global mental, neurological and substance use disorders in the world (30% of India’s population falls within this group).
  • A recent study found that most TB patients seek treatment from the private sector than government hospitals.
  • More than 10% drugs in the government supply chain are not of standard quality (NSQ).
    • According to a survey conducted by Ministry of Health and Family Welfare (in 2015), 4% of drugs are not of standard quality (NSQ).
    • According to a survey by drug controller, 6.7% of drugs are not of standard quality (NSQ).
  • A WHO report in 2016 revealed that 57% of the medical practitioners in India did not have any medical qualification. And only about 20% of health workers had a medical qualification.
  • According to a report by the National Skills Development Corporation, healthcare in India has the potential to generate an additional 7.5 million direct job opportunities by 2022.
  • Only 20% of women (and 30% of men) have comprehensive knowledge of HIV/AIDS.
  • More than 40% of women do not have access to hygienic methods of protection during their menstrual period. (NHFS-4)
  • Non-communicable diseases such as diabetes, cancer and heart disease, are collectively responsible for over 70% of all deaths worldwide (WHO).
  • Suicides
    • 1.3 lakh suicides take place every year in India.
    • 10,000 student suicides. (More than 1 every hour)

Education

  • There is 98% enrollment at primary level in India.
  • India spends 3.7% (take it 4%) of GDP on education. [Global average is 4.9% (~6% for comparable countries like Brazil, South Africa etc.)]
  • The pupil to teacher ratio (PTR) in primary and upper primary schools in India fell to 28:1 and 30:1 respectively in 2013-2014, a sharp decline from the 46:1 and 34:1 ratios in 2005-2006. In universities and colleges it is 24. [The present PTRs are thus satisfactory.]
  • District Information System for Education (DISE) report (2013) show that only 6 out of every 10 schools in the country have access to electricity and still 35% schools don’t have usable toilets.
    • UDISE+ 2018-19 data: Schools with toilet - 95%+ & Schools with electricity - 95%+ (Source)
  • District Information System for Education (DISE) data of 2017 shows that only ~9.5% schools are fully compliant with RTE norms.
  • Only less than one third of Indian engineering graduates and about 5% of students from basic sciences and other streams are found employable.
  • National dropout rate at the primary level was 4.34% in 2014-15, and it was even higher at the secondary level, at 17.86%.
  • Of all children enrolled in Class V, about half cannot read at Class II level. (ASER)
  • Gross Enrollment Ratio (GER) in class 1-5 = 99.2%
  • GER in class 6-8 = 92%
  • GER in higher (tertiary) education = 25.2% [our target = 32% by 2022]
    • Male - 26.3%
    • Female - 25.4%
    • SC - 21.8%
    • ST - 15.9%

Women

  • Labour and employment
    • Female LFPR = 23.3% (Rural - 24.6%; Urban - 20.4%) (World avg: ~50%)
      • India’s overall female labour force participation (FLFP) rate has dropped from 35% in 1991 to 23.3% in 2019 while the world average is around 50%.
    • Urban female LFPR has been stagnant.
      • Rural female LFPR decreased between 2001-2011
      • Overall LFPR of India = ~52%
      • India Has Second-Lowest Female Labour Force Participation Rate In South Asia
      • 75% of the women workforce is in agricultural sector.
    • More than 90% of women workers are concentrated in informal sector. Women are found to be over-represented in the informal sector because the flexibility, especially in home-based work, is advantageous to them given their other needs and demands upon their time in the form of unpaid labour. Women, who are generally unskilled, are considered to be the cheap source of labour. [Feminisation of informal sector]
    • Women’s contribution to the GDP in India is only 17% while the global average is 37%.
    • IMF research says that women’s participation in the workforce to the level of men can boost the Indian economy by 27%.
    • From NSSO data of 2011, it was found that women from higher castes and higher income families spent less time working outside the house.
  • Wage gap
    • Wage gap = 34% (2018, ILO) (Global avg: 18.8%)
    • In India, women formed 60% of the lowest paid wage labour, but only 15% of the highest wage-earners.
  • Financial independence:
    • Nearly half of the women do not have a bank or savings accounts for their own use, and 60% of women have no valuable assets to their name.
    • 84% of women participate in household decisions. (NFHS-4)
    • 38% of women owns a house and/or land (alone or jointly with others) (NFHS-4)
  • As per NFHS-4, more than 30% of women aged 6 and above have never attended school.
  • As per NFHS-4, more than 25% of women aged 20-24 were married before 18 years.
  • Female contraception:
    • Nearly 47% of women do not use any contraception, and of those who do, less than a third use female-controlled reversible contraception. (Restriction on reproductive agency of women)
    • Only 54% women use some methods of family planning.
    • 36% of women adopted permanent methods of contraception like sterilisation.
    • Male sterilisation - 0.5%
  • Son preference and metapreference:
    • Due to “son preference” (sex selective abortion), there are 63 million “missing” women.
    • Due to “son meta-preference” (stopping rules unless desired number of son are born), there are 21 million “unwanted” girls.
  • Only ~14% of researchers are women (world avg = 20%) (UNESCO 2018)
  • About 10 Crore households are still deprived of LPG as cooking fuel and have to rely on firewood, coal, dung-cakes etc. as primary source of cooking. According to WHO estimates, about 5 lakh deaths in India alone due to unclean cooking fuels.

Marriage

  • Child marriage
    • Almost 25% of married women aged 20-24 were married before 18yrs of age.
    • Prevalence of child marriage for women aged between 15-19 was 11.9% (NFHS IV) (26.5% in 2005 - NFHS III)
    • Rajasthan has reported the highest incidence of child marriages.
  • Inter-caste marriage
    • According to a National Council of Applied Economic Research (NCAER) 2016 study inter-caste marriages represents only about 5% of all marriages.
  • Median age of marriage
    • For men = 23.5; for women = 19.2 (2011 census)
    • In 2001 it was - for men = 22.6; for women = 18.2

Poverty

  • About 30% of multidimensionally poor children live in India. (Oxford Poverty and Human Development Initiative (OPHI))
  • More than 528 million (52 crore) Indians are (multidimensionally) poor, which are more people than all the poor people living in sub-Saharan Africa combined. (Oxford Poverty & Human Development Initiative)
  • India is the world’s second largest food producer, yet it is also home to the second highest population of under-nourished in the world.
  • Around 39% of BPL population belong to Scheduled Castes. (Min. of Social Justice)

Labour and employment

  • Overall LFPR of India = ~ 52%
  • Work force = ~ 52 crore
  • More than 80% of workers are employed in informal sector in India.
  • 83% of the workers in India are self-employed, casual or contract workers.
  • 45.7% of India’s workforce is employed in agriculture.
  • India adds 12 million people to its workforce every year. But only 5.5 million job are created annually.
  • Commuter migration for work across the rural-urban divide is more than 10 million.
  • Labour migration: Around 9 million people migrate from one state to another every year for either education or work (ES 16).
  • Only 2.3% of India’s workforce has undergone formal skill training compared to United Kingdom’s (UK) 68%, Germany’s 75%, USA’s 52%, Japan’s 80% and South Korea’s 96%.
Sectors Employment GDP contribution
Agriculture 46% 17%
Industries 24% 29%
(Manufacturing) 17%
Services 30% 55%

Finance

  • India's tax to GDP ratio is low 16.6% (ES 2015-16).
  • Roughly 5.5% of earning individuals pay income tax in India.
  • At least 19 crore Indian adults do not have bank accounts making the country the second largest in terms of unbanked population according to a report by World Bank (WB) report titled Global Findex Database (2018).
    • There is also a gender gap of 6% in bank accounts. 83% of men and 77% of women have bank account.
  • Govt spends 4.2% of GDP subsidising various commodities. [ES 2015-16]

NPA

  • Total NPA of Scheduled Commerical Banks = (as on March 2018) ~ 10 Lakh crore (11.6%) (expected to rise to 12.2% by March 2019)
  • NPA of Public Sector Banks = 8.4 Lakh crores (15.6%)
  • Nearly 80% of the NPAs are concentrated with Public Sector Banks (PSBs).
  • In 2016, 80% of the NPAs came from mid-size companies and MSMEs. Therefore stress in the corporate sector is not only deepening but also widening.

Justice system

  • There are more than 3 crore cases pending in various courts. (Pendency percentage is around 87%)
  • The average time in which a decision is likely to be made is nearly six years in subordinate courts. In high court it is 10 years and 3 years in Supreme Court. Thus for a final disposal of a case, it takes 15-20 years.
  • The average time that the judges have for each hearing, could be as little as 2 minutes.
  • It has been estimated that if court decisions were quick and delays reduced, economic growth could receive a boost to the tune of 1-2% of gross domestic product.
  • A recent study found that nearly 31% of individuals accused of bailable offences continue to be in jail as they cannot afford bail or guarantors to stand surety.
  • Nearly 64% of prison inmates are under trials, with major reason being lack of money to obtain bail or delay in trial.
  • India has 20 judges per million.
    • Seven times worse than the United States (107 per million).
    • Law Commission had recommended 50 judges per million.
  • Vacancy in Indian courts is very high (30-40%).
  • At present SC has only 193 working days and HCs - 210. Currently judges have summer vacation of ~50 days, winter vacation of ~20 days.
  • Government litigation:
    • The tax department’s petition rate is high, even though its success rate in litigation is low and declining (well below 30%).
    • About 66% of pending cases (each less than ₹10 lakhs) accounted for only 1.8% of the value at stake.
    • The claims for indirect and direct tax stuck in litigation (Appellate Tribunal and upwards) by the quarter ending March, 2017 amounted to nearly 7.58 lakh crores, over 4.7% of GDP.
  • Total spending on Administration of Justice by States and the Centre constitutes approximately 0.1% of GDP which is low when compared to other countries.
  • There are approximately 137 policemen per lakh population. The UN recommended number of police personnel per lakh population is 222.

NCRB Data 2017 (report released in 2019)

  • Majority of cases under crimes against women were reported under ‘Cruelty by Husband or His Relatives’ (33.2%)
  • In 95% of the crimes against women cases, the offender is known to the victim.
  • Rape cases recorded a decrease by 16% from 38,947 in 2016 to 32,559 in 2017.
    • Lowest incidence in the last four years.
    • (4 cases are recorded per hour)
Offences Conviction rate
Rape 32% (25% in 2016)
Note: Crimes of rape and murder are counted under murder in NCRB Report (Conviction rate for murder = 43.1%)
Crimes against women 24.6% (19% in 2016)
Section 498A IPC (Cruelty by husband or his relatives) 16% (14% in 2016)
Crimes against children 35%
Crimes against SCs 35%
Crimes against STs 28%
SC/ST Act (for SCs) 39.3%
Corruption 43%
Offences against state 30%
IPC crimes 49% (in UK > 80%)
Cyber crimes 22.6%

*Approximations have been done where appropriate.

  • Children in conflict:
    • 70% children in conflict with the law belonged to families with an income up to Rs 50,000. (42% belonged to families with an income up to Rs 25,000; 28% - between Rs 25,000 and Rs 50,000.) (Subculture theory of deviance)

Administration

  • Total number of districts = 707 (as of 2016)
  • Total number of gram panchayats = 2.5 lakh

Politics

Criminalisation of politics (ADR) (2019 Lok Sabha elections)

  • 43% of MPs of 17th Lok Sabha have criminal cases registered against them (ADR) [34% in 16th LS]
  • 29% members have declared serious criminal cases including cases related to murder, attempt to murder, communal disharmony, kidnapping, crimes against women etc.
  • The chances of winning for a candidate with criminal cases in the elections are 15.5% whereas for a candidate with a clean record it is 4.7%.

Women in politics

  • There are only 78 women leaders (14%) in 17th Lok Sabha. (Global average = 23%)
  • This the highest representation of women in Lok Sabha since independence but still it is very low
  • In 16th Lok Sabha, women’s representation = 11.9%
  • In 1st Lok Sabha, women’s representation = 4.4%

Elections

  • Total registered voters = around 87 crores
  • Average voter turnout in elections is only around 65-70%. This means that the opinion of about 30 crores voters is not being registered.
  • In 2014 Lok Sabha elections the National Democratic Alliance who formed the Union government had 31% vote share

Reservations in public employment and educational institutes

  • Reservations: SC (15%), ST (7.5%), and OBC (27%)
  • Population proportion: SC (19.7%), ST (8.5%), OBC (41.1%) and FC (30.8%)
  • Representation in govt services: SC (17%), ST (8.5%), OBC (19.75%) and FC (54.75%)
  • Almost 50% of Safai Karamcharis in government services belong to SC/ST. (DoPT Annual Report 2016-17).

Road safety

  • There is one death every four minutes due to a road accident in India.
  • Accidents kill 400 people every day on Indian roads.
  • A government report indicates a loss to the economy of 3 per cent of GDP (1999-2000) due to road mishaps.

Infrastructure

  • According to Ministry of Shipping, around 95% of India’s trading by volume and 70% by value is done through maritime transport.
  • Cargo traffic in 2015: 1,052 million metric tonnes (MMT). Cargo traffic expected by 2017 : 1,758 MMT
  • Despite significantly lower costs, water transport accounts only 6% of total freight movement in India.
  • India had improved its ranking in logistics performance from 54th in 2014 to 35th in 2016 (World Bank’s Logistics Performance Index)
  • India has 66,000 km of railway lines, out which only 17,000 km have been added after independence.
  • India has about 14,500 km of navigable inland waterways.
  • Logistics costs are high in India - 14% of GDP, compared to less than 10% in China.
  • India will require investments of about $4.5 trillion by 2040 to develop infrastructure to improve economic growth and community well-being according to the Economic Survey 2017-18.

Technology

  • Only 28% (58% in urban, 12.8% in rural) of population has internet access (by absolute number 2nd in the world, 35 crores)
    • It is claimed by critics that this figure of 28% is overestimated as it calculated by looking at number of internet connections and not by number of households having internet connection. For example, in a family of 3, there could be 4 internet connections - 1 broadband, 3 mobile internet. Thus, this figure not true due to contains double counting.
  • 21 Crore (16%) people are social media users (in 2016) which is expected to rise to 35 crores (27%) by 2021 [Not Govt data]
  • India has 73 crore mobile users.
  • India has around 35 crore smart phone users which is expected to reach 50 crore by 2018.
  • Currently, India has only 151 million broadband subscribers relative to nearly 1,060 million telephone subscribers.
  • Tele-density, or the number of telephone connections for every 100 individuals, is 83. In rural areas, the tele-density is one-third that of urban areas. Approximately 55,619 villages do not have mobile coverage.
  • An analysis of National Sample Survey data (71st round of 2014) on Social Consumption and Education found that only an estimated 8.8% of the rural population can use PCs and smartphones. In urban areas, the figure is nearly four times higher, at 30.2%. [‘computing ability’ is not linked to digital infrastructure or internet penetration. It is more about the ability to use gadgets.]
  • ASER 2017 Report (titled Beyond Basics) revealed that nationally, 64% of the rural youth surveyed has never used the Internet. The situation is much worse in Eastern States.
  • India’s gross expenditure on R&D has been low at just around 1% of GDP. (China - 2.1%, US - 2.8%)
    • 60% of expenditure on R&D is by government (public sector).

Water

  • India’s groundwater table is declining at a rate of 0.3 metres per year (NASA).
  • India possesses around 18% of the world’s population, but only 2.4% of land and 4.2% of water resources.
  • If the current pattern of water usage continues, about half of the demand for water will be unmet by 2030. (A recent NITI Aayog report also says this)

Energy

  • Installed capacity of India: 370 GW
    • Coal: 200 GW (56%)
    • Hydro: 50 GW (14%)
    • Wind: 37 GW (10%)
    • Solar: 33 GW (8%)
    • Gas: 25 GW (7%)
    • Biomass: 9 GW (2.5%)
    • Nuclear: 7 GW (2%)
  • Solar power: 33 GW (2019) (2.5 GW in 2014)
    • Top states: Karnataka (6 GW) > Telangana (3.5 GW) > Rajasthan (3.2 GW)
  • A per India Energy Security Scenarios (IESS), 2047, (by NITI Aayog) the energy demand of India is likely to go up by 2.7-3.2 times between 2012 and 2040, with the electricity component itself rising 4.5 fold.
  • Per capita electricity consumption of India = ~1000 units; whereas the global average is ~3000 units and in developed countries it is ~8000 units. We need increase our energy generation capacity to sustain the high economic growth. This needs to be supplemented by energy conservation and clean energy.
  • Presently, 304 million (more than 30 crore) Indians do not have access to electricity and around 500 million (more than 50 crore) Indians are dependent on solid biomass for cooking.
  • Aggregate Technical and Commercial (AT&C) losses stand at 21.4% (2019).

Cities

  • Cities cover only about 1% of the earth’s surface but produce about 80% of gross world product and account for around 78% of energy consumed worldwide.
  • As per the Census 2011, 377 million Indians comprising 31.1% of the total population live in urban areas. They contribute 60% of GDP.
  • Urban areas are expected to house 40% of India's population and contribute 75% of India's GDP by 2030.

Agriculture

  • 45.7% of India’s workforce is employed in agriculture but it accounts for only 17% of Gross Domestic Product (GDP).
  • Indian agricultural productivity growth has been stagnant, averaging roughly 3% over the last 30 years.
  • According to the 2010-11 Agricultural Census, 47% of landholdings are less than half a hectare in size.
  • There are 14.4 crore landless agricultural labourers.
  • The coverage of PM Fasal Bima Yojana has reached about 30% of the total cropped area in the country.
  • A CAG audit report on Centre's crop insurance schemes (2017) found that only 37% of the farmers were aware of crop insurance schemes.
  • India has a total of 200.8 million hectares of agricultural land in the country out of which only 95.8 million hectares is irrigated, which is only 48% of the total.
  • India is home to 17% of the world population, and only 4% of the world's water resources are in the country. The ultimate irrigation potential is 139 mn ha whereas total agricultural land is 200 mn ha.
  • The total gap between Irrigation Potential Created (IPC) and Irrigation Potential Utilized (IPU) (irrigation gap) is 15.69 million ha.
  • India’s average yield in 2013 of 3075 kg/ha is lower than the world average of 3257 kg/ha.
  • Low Farm Income: According to NSS data, the average annual income of the median farmer net of production costs from cultivation is less than rupees 20,000 in 17 states.
  • Climate change could reduce annual agricultural incomes in the range of 15% to 18% on average, and up to 20% to 25% for unirrigated areas. [ES 2017-18]
  • A study by the IMF (2017) finds that for emerging market economies a 1 degree Celsius increase in temperature would reduce agricultural growth by 1.7%, and a 100 millimetres reduction in rain would reduce growth by 0.35%.

Startups

  • Indian startup ecosystem is the third largest in the world.
    • It is dominated by food delivery startups.

Defence

  • India is the 2nd largest importer of arms (according to a study by Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (SIPRI)).

Sanitation and waste management

  • 63% of rural population and 43% of urban population are not connected to sewer lines.
  • Only 37% of municipal waste gets treated (global avg - 80%)

Environment

  • Pollutions
    • Pollution was responsible for 9 million deaths in 2015 worldwide.
  • Biodiversity
    • India is one of the megadiverse countries.
    • India has 2.4% of world's area and 7% of recorded species.
  • Mangroves
    • India has 4740 sq km of man mangroves (3% of world's & 8% of Asia's mangroves)
  • Coral reefs
    • 20% of world's coral reefs have been destroyed.
    • India has 2300 sq km of coral reefs.
  • Climate change
    • CO2 level in atmosphere have reached 150% of pre industrial levels. (WMO Greenhouse Gas Bulletin 2017)
    • Global temperature will exceed 3 degree above pre industrial levels by 2100 with current pace of mitigation. (Global Emission Gap Report 2018)
    • IPCC 1.5 degree report 2018
      • Global temperature will exceed 1.5 degree above pre industrial levels by 2050.
      • To limit global warming to 1.5 degree above pre-industrial levels
        • Reduce CO2 emissions by 45% by 2030 (base - 2010)
        • Net zero emissions by 2050
    • India accounts for 7% of total carbon emission. (China (29%) > US (16%) > India (7%))
    • India’s per capita CO2 emissions is lowest among G20 Nations.
  • Groundwater
    • India's water table is declining at 0.3m/year. If the trend continues, in 15 years, 60% of India's acquifers will be in critical condition.
    • 90% of ground water extraction is for irrigation.
    • 80% of India's drinking water needs is met by groundwater.
  • Water
    • India is a water stressed country with renewable water availability of 1540 m3 /person (< 1700 m3 /person)
    • By 2030, half of India's water demand will be unmet

Forest

As per 16th Indian State of Forest Report 2019:

  • Total forest cover + Tree cover : 24.56 %
    • 80.73 million hectare
    • Increase w.r.t. ISFR 2017: 5,188 sq. km (Forest cover - 3,976 + Tree cover - 1,212)
    • Increase w.r.t. forest type : Open forest >Very dense forest > Moderate dense forest
    • Max increase : Karnataka > Andhra > Kerala
    • Max decrease: Manipur> Arunachal> Mizoram
  • Forest cover in Recorded Forest Area (RFA) / Green Wash(GW) : Decrease 0.05%
  • Total Area : MP > Arunachal> Chhattisgarh > Odisha > Maharashtra
  • Area as percent of total land : Mizoram> Arunachal > Meghalaya > Manipur > Nagaland
  • Forest Cover in Hill Districts: 40% (increase 0.19 %)
  • Very Dense Forest : increase of 1120 sq km
  • Forest cover in NE states : Decrease 0.45%
  • Forest cover in Tribal Districts: 37% (increase ~ 1000 sq km)
  • Mangrove:
    • Total : 4975 sq km
    • West Bengal(42%) > Gujarat(23%) > Andaman and Nicobar
    • Increase : 54 sq km
  • Bamboo:
    • Total: 16 mn ha
    • Madhya Pradesh > Maharashtra > Arunachal > Odisha
    • Increase : 0.32 mn ha
  • Wetlands (1st time)
    • Total : 3.83 %
    • Gujarat > West Bengal
  • Total Carbon Stock:
    • Total : 7,124.6 mn tonnes
    • Increase : 42.6 mn tonnes
    • Max : Soil organic carbon (56%)
    • Note : NDC target - 2.5 to 3.0 bn tonnes of CO2 eq by 2030

Source: FSI