People's Participation in Freedom Struggle

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Contribution of Women

Latika Ghosh
  • found Mahila Rashtriya Sangha 1928 asked by Bose to lead women in Simon Commission boycott
  • used religious sentiments to catch attention
Madam Bhikaji Cama
  • travelled extensively crusading for India’s freedom struggle
  • started Free India Society
  • journal- Vande Mataram
  • unfurled national flag at Int'l Socialist Conference in Germany 1907
Sarojini Naidu
  • poet activist
  • 1st Indian woman prez of Congress 1925
  • founded Women's India Association (1917, Adyar) with Annie Besant
  • received Kaiser-e-Hind for her work in plague epidemic
  • 1st Guv of UP
Kalpana Datta

Preetilata Waddedar

  • active role in Chittagong Armoury Raids
  • joined Indian Republican Army
Kamaladevi Chattopadhyaya
  • participated in Salt Satyagraha
  • secy of All India Women Conference, attended Int'l Alliance of Women in Berlin 1929
  • helped refugees, set up Faridabad
  • widow, also divorcee
  • pioneered cooperative movement
  • joined Seva Dal- gandhian org. to promote social upliftment
  • All India Handicrafts Board, World Crafts Council
  • 'Ratna Sadsya' by Sangeet Natak Academy, Padma Viibhushan
Aruna Asaf Ali
  • hoisted INC flag at Gowlia Tank Maidan 1942
  • Grand Old Lady of the Independence Movement.
  • journals- Link, Patriot
Sucheta Kriplani
  • individual satyagraha
  • 1st CM of ind. UP
  • founded All India Mahila Congress 1942
Rani Gaidiniliu arrested at age of 13 in Nagaland
Sarla Devi Chadurani
  • Founded Bharat Stree Mahamandal 1910- 1st women org.
  • Journal- Bharati Bengali
Annie Besant
  • Irish lady and the founder of the Theosophical Society.
  • first woman president of the Congress.
  • 1916, she established the Indian Home Rule League.
  • She started a newspaper, “New India.”
  • estd. Central Hindu College High School at Benaras (1913)
Pandita Ramabai
  • Arya Mahila Samaj, 1882
  • Sharda Sadan 1887
Margaret Cousins All India Women's Conference 1927 to tackle problems of women education
Kamini Roy
  • Ilbert Bill agitation
  • 1st woman to graduate honors
  • formed Bangiya Nari Samaj for suffrage
  • part of Female Labor Investigation Commission 1922-23
Dr. Muthulakshmi Reddi India’s first legislator

Bharat Mahila Parishad was foudned as women's wing of National Social Conference for social issues against women

Contribution of North East Region

Prominent figures
Freedom Fighter Contribution
Tirot Singh
  • leader of Khasi tribe, tried to unite tribes and communities
    • fought heavily armed British for 3 years
Rani Gaidinlieu led movement against British in 1930s, captured while she was just 17
  • struggle soon turned into battle to uproot British from Manipur, Nagaland
Kanaklata Baruah joined freedom struggle on Gandhian principles during QIM, shot dead at 17
  • Kushal Konwar hanged by Britishers for derailment of train in 1942
Gopinath Bordoloi 1st CM of Assam played key role in keeping Assam united
  • foiled league's grouping plan to include Assam into East Pakistan
Gomdhar Konwar Ahom's revolt
Bhogeshwari Phukanani dared to attack, set free office of Congress in Berhampur (Assam) from siege of British Police
Maniram Dewan fierce opponent of Britishers, believed that industrial development can only happen in free India
Tyagbir Hem Barua poet, scholar, professor played active role in QIM

Several Tribal leaders from Manipur, Nagaland, Assam joined the Quit India Movement. Further, there was good participation of women in the Freedom Struggle from North East.

Under aegis of 'forgotten heroes' from NE, GoI lately honored freedom fighters on 70th Independence day.

Contribution of Industrialists

Notable Contribution:

  • They lent their support to the Congress in protest against the colonial policies that restricted indigenous enterprises.
    • Since they wanted protection against imports of foreign goods, such rupee-sterling ratio to discourage imports
  • Industrialists gave financial assistance and refused to buy or sell goods.
  • since 1920s, efforts made to organize capitalists and thus ssociations like Indian Industrial and Commercial Congress in 1920 and FICCI in 1927 were formed.
    • Indian Merchant's Chamber-1907 formed post Swadeshi Movement.
    • ASSOCHAM 1920 was formed post WW-I, to integrate all India economic policy for rapid growth of Indian business. Their maiden conference was held in Calcutta.
    • Finally in 1927, FICCI formed, soon recognized by British govt. & Indian public to represent opinion of the capitalist class but FICCI was not just TU of capitalist but also intervened in politics for national good. They signed Bombay Manifesto 1936 - open indictment of Nehru's socialist ideas, also didn't support Public Safety Bill which went against overall national interests.
  • They viewed Swaraj as freedom from the domination of market by foreign goods but withdrew their support when the second Round Table Conference failed.
  • They were however, concerned about the rise of the socialist ideology in the Congress.
  • Nevertheless they started indigenous industries to provide firm industrial base to support and defend freedom.
  • Purshottamdas, Thakurdas and G.D. Birla attacked the colonial control over Indian economy.
  • Walchand Joshi along with Annie Besant, M.R. Jayakar were 1st sponsors of pioneering national news agency, the Free Press of India founded in 1927.