Post Independence History: Notes based on NCERT
These are topics prepared based on NCERT Book.
- Jana Sangh as early as 1960s rallied around Lohia socialists - who they used to arraign till then - against Congress
- In 1963 - Socialist Party, the Swatantra party and Jana Sangh decided to put up only 1 candidate in 4 LS by-elections.
- In 1967 - Jana Sangh MLAs of Bihar, UP, HR, Punjab, MP joined hands not only with socialists but also with communists in coalitions known as Samyukta Vidhayak Dal
- In 1977-79 - Janata experiment was as shot lived as SVD governments - because of partner’s dissenting views
- In 1989 - BJP joined hands with arch enemies, the communists of CPI(M), to support VP singh Mahagathbandhan
During KA elections, Congress-JD(s) combine was called an unholy alliance by many.
- Those who support it
- National security is supposed to prevail over Democracy
- this is a discourse that politics of fear cultivate across the globe
Performance of coalition government over one party rules?
- Coalition government does not necessarily mean instability and paralysis
- Few reforms by current government hardly compare with those by Narasimha Rao minority government in 1991-96
- In last 3 governments since ABV proves that 15-plus large parties’ coalitions can combine achievements and stability best growth rates have been achieved in Congress-led coalition governments
However, it needs coalition oriented leaders
- who know how to decentralise power and decision making
- recognise the key roles states have to play in federation
- who know how to keep all partners on board
Challenges of Nation Building
- Tryst with Destiny speech by Nehru on the midnight of Aug 14-15
- Two goals that everyone agreed upon Democratic government
- Govt for the good of all - particularly poor and socially disadvantaged
Circumstances at independence
- Unprecedented violence
- Various poets like Amrita Pritam, Faiz Ahmed Faiz explains the violence and situation of partition through their poems
- Trauma of displacement
- Immediate and first challenge - Unity in diversity
- It was widely believed that country with such kinds of diversity could not remain together for long questions were there whether India would survive as a unified country?
- Establish democracy
- Democratic constitution is necessary but not sufficient
- Challenge was to develop democratic practices
- Development and well being of the entire society and not only of some sections
- Equality and special protection under Constitution
- Challenge was to evolve effective policies for economic development and eradication of poverty
Partition: Displacement and Rehabilitation
- Followed the principle of religious majorities areas where Muslims were in majority, would make up territory of Pakistan and rest India
- No single belt of Muslim majority in British India
- Two areas of concentration - One in East and One in West
- Not all Muslim majority areas wanted to be in Pakistan - Khan Abdul Gaffar Khan, leader of North Western Frontier Province - Frontier Gandhi - was opposed to two nation theory
- Both muslim majority areas in West and East had very large areas where the non-muslims were in majority. -> Decided that these would be bifurcated according to religious majority at the district or even lower level But decision could not be made by midnight Aug 14-15
- Minorities on both sides of border found themselves trapped. Undesirable aliens in their own homes. They became easy targets of attack.
- One of the largest, most abrupt, unplanned and tragic transfer of population that human history has known
- Killings and atrocities
- Religious violence
- Cities like Amritsar, Kolkata and Lahore became divided into “communal zones"
- Refugees - found unhelpful local administration and police in what was till recently their own country
- Women suffered - abducted, raped, made to convert religion, forced into marriage
- Killed by their members to prevent family honour
- “division of hearts”
- Partition forced about 80 lakh people to migrate across the new border
- Between 5 to 10 lakh people were killed in partition
- Muslim population in India accounted for 12% of total population in 1951
- Gandhi was unhappy with what he saw as Indian government’s decision not to honour its financial commitments to Pakistan
- After his fast, Indian government agreed to give Pakistan its dues
- RSS was banned for sometime after Godse killed Gandhiji. Communal politics began to lose its appeal.